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Ecology

Surprise Tsunami Hits Indonesia, Killing Hundreds

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Destruction from the December 23, 2018 tsunami in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. BNPB.

Destruction from the December 23, 2018 tsunami in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. BNPB.

For the second time this year, an unexpected tsunami hit the coast of Indonesia resulting in hundreds of deaths. This tsunami may have been generated by an eruption of Anak Krakatau in the Sunda Strait, with Indonesian officials speculkating that an erupotion that occurred late last night may have triggered undersea landslides. So far, at least 220 people are known to have died , over 800 were injured and multitudes are missing. Many of the deaths were in Pandelang, located at the end of bays that could have amplified the height of the waves. The tsunami waves were as high as 3 meters. You can see some of the destruction from these waves in the video and images below.

Whatever happened at Anak Krakatau to cause the tsunami, it appears that the volcano has experienced a major eruption as well. The Darwin VAAC report for the volcano indicate ash reaching as high as 17 kilometers (55,000 feet). The Himawari-8 weather satellite caught the plume from the eruption — you can see it in the false color loop:

There are unconfirmed reports that the tsunami was generated by more than half of the existing Anak Krakatau cone collapsing into the sea. No significant earthquakes were recorded in the area last night, so the eruption of Anak Krakatau may be the likeliest source of the tsunami. There are some video that claim to be from after the eruption showing that does look like a dissected cone for the volcano:

UPDATE: These images from Sentinel-1 show evidence of a collapse of Anak Krakatau along with potential waves generated by the collapse:

Sector collapse is one of the major ways that volcanic eruptions can produce tsunamis. An eruption of Unzen in 1792 caused part of the volcano to collapse into the sea, killing over 15,000. Krakatau, the volcano that preceded Anak Krakatau, famously produced a massive eruption and tsunami in 1883. Unlike this event, the 1883 tsunami that killed 36,000 was produced by a caldera collapse, where the entire volcano collapsed into itself forming a bowl that was filled by the sea (below). Anak Krakatau has been built over the past 125 years within that 1883 caldera.

Sentinel-2 image of Anak Krakatau erupting in September 2018. The three outer islands outline the shape of Krakatau prior to the 1883 eruption. NASA Earth Observatory.

Sentinel-2 image of Anak Krakatau erupting in September 2018. The three outer islands outline the shape of Krakatau prior to the 1883 eruption. NASA Earth Observatory.

As Simon Carn speculates, part of the volcano has grown rapidly over this year and Anak Krakatau has had an active fall, with frequent strombolian eruptions and lava flows – see the images above taken in September. One scenario [SPECULATION] is that a collapse of part of the volcano would allow seawater to interact with the erupting magma, causing the explosive eruption seen last night [SPECULATION] UPDATE: Simon Carn sees characteristics in the eruption that suggest a lot of magma and seawater interaction. Whatever the case, it may be a while before the full reason how the tsunami was generated.

You can watch some of the eruptions going on at Anak Krakatau only a few hours before the tsunami hit, taken by Øystein L. Andersen.

Øystein and his family escaped the tsunami (just barely) and he’s been updating with images of the aftermath of the tsunami.

I’ll add more information about this tragedy when possible.

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Ecology

Yukon and Northern BC First Nations tackle climate change using Indigenous knowledge and science

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YUKON, June 18, 2021 /CNW/ – The Government of Canada is working together in partnership with Indigenous and Northern communities in finding solutions to adapt to the impacts of climate change in the North.

Today, Minister of Northern Affairs, Daniel Vandal, along with Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages (Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency), Larry Bagnell, highlighted progress on three unique, Indigenous-led projects that are helping communities in Yukon and Northern British Columbia adapt to the challenges posed by climate change.

The Minister and Parliamentary Secretary met virtually with Carcross/Tagish First Nation (C/TFN) to learn about their community-led climate change monitoring program. C/TFN has partnered with Tsay Keh Dene Nation (TKDN) and Chu Cho Environmental of Prince George, British Columbia, to build a community-led monitoring project that examines environmental data and Indigenous knowledge to create a holistic picture of how the climate is changing across C/TFN and TKDN traditional territories. The project combines tracking of current and historical climate trends with knowledge shared by Elders while also providing opportunities for youth mentorship and climate change awareness.

The Taku River Tlingit First Nation (TRTFN) is also leading a unique project to assess the impacts of climate change within their traditional territory. Climate change is causing many of the culturally significant ice patches to melt, exposing organic artifacts to oxygen and leading to rapid deterioration. The TRTFN ice patch mapping project will involve performing archaeological assessments to prevent the degradation of artifacts. Research will be guided by traditional knowledge, Elders and oral histories, when available, and heavily involve community, Elders, youth and Knowledge Keepers.

The Pelly Crossing Selkirk Development Corporation is leading the Selkirk Wind Resource Assessment project through the installation of a Sonic Detection and Ranging (SODAR) system. The initiative includes a feasibility study leading up to the construction of a renewable energy facility, including wind, solar and battery energy storage. Expanding clean energy within the region will have direct benefits for communities, including reduced reliance on diesel, job creation and revenue generation for Selkirk First Nation. 

These projects are delivering important environmental, social and economic benefits that lead to healthier, more sustainable and resilient communities across Yukon and Northern British Columbia. They also build community clean energy capacity and help to avoid the impacts of climate change.

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Ecology

Atlantic Provinces Ready For Aquaculture Growth

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Aquaculture is an important economic driver for rural, coastal and Indigenous communities, and Atlantic Canada is well positioned to increase aquaculture production as global demand for sustainably sourced seafood grows.

That is why the ministers responsible for aquaculture in the Atlantic provinces have agreed to the ongoing development and management of their industries based on common principles. A new memorandum of understanding has been signed by the four ministers, which extends the previous agreement signed in 2008.

“In a time when food security is especially important, it is good to see our aquaculture industry has grown steadily and is poised for continued growth in 2021 based on environmentally responsible, science-based policies and practices,” said Keith Colwell, Minister of Fisheries and Aquaculture for Nova Scotia. “Our Atlantic partnership continues to help the industry grow sustainably.”

Cooperation between the provinces and the aquaculture industry has led to improvements in pest management, environmentally sustainable aquaculture methods, aquatic animal health and policies to support the shared use of marine and freshwater resources. It also aims to align regulation and policy between the provinces to make the regulatory requirements easier to understand by industry and the public.

Each province has a comprehensive and robust legislative and regulatory framework to ensure environmental sustainability, economic prosperity and public accountability. The provinces update their legislation and regulations regularly. Nova Scotia revamped its regulatory framework in 2015; New Brunswick received Royal Assent for a new Aquaculture Act in 2019 and is working on the supporting regulations; Newfoundland and Labrador completely revised its aquaculture policy in 2019; and Prince Edward Island has recently drafted a new Aquaculture Act.

The ministers have agreed to continue to use science-based evidence for management decisions, thereby increasing public and investor confidence in the Atlantic Canadian aquaculture industry.

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Ecology

COMING SOON: A Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy 2.0

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We all want the same thing: a clean and responsible energy future for our children and future generations while continuing to enjoy a high standard of living.

On December 11, 2020, the Prime Minister announced a new climate plan which he claimed will help achieve Canada’s economic and environmental goals.

The proposed plan by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) entitled “A Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy” will have an initial investment of $15 billion of taxpayer’s money. It is built on 5 pillars of action:

  1) Making the Places Canadians Live and Gather More Affordable by Cutting Energy Waste

2) Making Clean, Affordable Transportation and Power Available in Every Community

3) Continuing to Ensure Pollution isn’t Free and Households Get More Money Back

4) Building Canada’s Clean Industrial Advantage

5) Embracing the Power of Nature to Support Healthier Families and More Resilient Communities  

In my paper, “A Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy 2.0” I will objectively critique each pillar in the government’s new climate plan and provide alternative solutions to the same issues.

  This is an alternative plan that supports workers, protects lower income earners and creates economic growth while respecting the environment and focusing on the dignity of work.

  This plan abandons virtue-signaling projects and relies on Canadian ingenuity to build our economy and restore Canada’s role of responsible leadership in the world.

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