Connect with us

Ecology

Beyond Earthrise: Other Views from Apollo 8

Editor

Published

on

[ad_1]

Apollo 8's iconic Earthrise. NASA

Apollo 8’s iconic Earthrise. NASA

“Earthrise” was taken 50 years ago this Christmas, and it’s one of the most — if not the most — iconic images of the 20th century. It’s the image that gave us the idea that we went to the Moon and discovered the Earth. But there are so many other firsts that Apollo 8 brought us, so I thought we ought to take a minute to look at some of the less celebrated but still absolutely incredible images from Apollo 8.  

 

 

But First, Who Took That Iconic Apollo 8 Earthrise Image?

A Brief History on the Mission

Launched on December 21, 1968, Apollo 8 was the first time men – specifically astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, and Bill Anders – went to the Moon. 

It wasn’t a mission NASA had originally planned for. The agency intended to launch missions of increasing difficulty flying in alphabetical order. The “A” was an unmanned launch of the Command and Service Module (CSM) on a Saturn V rocket in Earth orbit (that turned out to be Apollos 4 and 6). The “B” mission would repeat the same mission with a Lunar Module (LM) (Apollo 5). The “C” mission would be a manned A mission (Apollo 7), the “D” mission a manned B mission (Apollo 9), then the “E” mission would fly in a high elliptical orbit. The “F” mission would go to the Moon for a dress rehearsal (Apollo 10), and the “G” mission would try for a landing (that fell to Apollo 11).

Things didn’t go according to plan, in short, because the Lunar Module fell behind schedule. Apollo 8 was supposed to be a “D” mission, but without a Lunar Module still in development, that mission couldn’t fly. The solution was to make it a “C-prime” mission — fly to the Moon without a lunar module. Rather than go all that way just to swing around and come back, NASA decided to test the lunar orbital portion of the Apollo missions by putting Apollo 8 into orbit for 10  revolutions before coming home. 

So. Apollo 8 was the first to launch men on a Saturn V to the Moon, which meant it was the first time humans sea the Earth from the Moon, but also the first time we got a close-up view of the Moon. 

Apollo 8’s Less Common Images

Starting with the launch. This is admittedly a pretty commonly used image, but it’s gorgeous and also the first time men launched on the massive Saturn V rocket.

The first manned Saturn V launch. NASA.

The first manned Saturn V launch. NASA.

Humans had seen the Earth from space before Apollo 8, but the view never gets old.

The view just south of Florida. NASA.

The view just south of Florida. NASA.

Apollo 8 was marked the first time humans saw the Earth retreating, getting small and smaller as they got further away. And some of those mid-translunar coast images (aka from halfway along the trip to the Moon, are totally gorgeous. And my personal favourites? The pictures that aren’t perfectly framed. There’s something so human in this, like you can feel how rushed and excited the crew was to capture this amazing sight for the first time in human history.

 

Translunar flight of Apollo 8. NASA.

Translunar flight of Apollo 8. NASA.

Then, of course, Apollo 8 went into orbit around the Moon on December 24, and got the first up-close look at our satellite. This was one of the dozens upon dozens of pictures taken in lunar orbit.

The Moon. NASA.

The Moon. NASA.

Another view from lunar orbit that might look familiar is this one, a less perfectly framed image of the Earth rising over of the Moon’s horizon. Personally, this is my favourite. The whole Earth is there, but the bit of windowsill reminds you that this was taken by three pilots who scrambled to capture something awe-inspiring. There’s such a subtle human element here. (I have a similar shot from Apollo 11 framed on my wall signed by Mike Collins!)

The less famous Earthrise. NASA.

The less famous Earthrise. NASA.

Leaving the Moon, Apollo 8 got this incredible view of the Moon’s terminator, the line where lunar day fades to night. I mean, look at the detail in those craters!

Leaving the Moon. NASA.

Leaving the Moon. NASA.

This is a weird one but I sort of love it. A photography experiment had the crew photograph the Moon through coloured filters. It’s just a little eerie, but also awesome. (They also took some with a blue filter.)

Red Moon. NASA.

Red Moon. NASA.

A final one from the return home, the so-called transearth coast, is one of my favourites. Views of the receding Moon always make me sad. I know the crew was happy to be home and out of the everything-is-trying-to-kill-you environment of space, but I love the adventure of going there and get sad when it’s time to come home! With the bit of the windowsill in the shot, I love the reminder that it was people and not robots that went to the Moon.

Leaving the Moon. NASA.

Leaving the Moon. NASA.

Christmas Controversy

I can’t write about Apollo 8 without mentioning the Christmas controversy. On December 24, the crew did a live TV broadcast from the Moon and read from the book of Genesis. And people were outraged. And people are still outraged! For me personally, as someone who isn’t of any Christian faith but loves history, I look at it as an historical event, plain and simple, that’s worth remembering because it was the first time people went to the Moon. Here’s a recap of the reading and the resulting lawsuit in a couple of older videos.

Happy Apollo 8 anniversary, everyone! And if you’d like to get an in-depth look at the mission, I highly recommend Apollo 8 by Jeff Kluger — an incredible book by one of my writing inspirations.

[ad_2]

Source link

قالب وردپرس

Ecology

Globe Climate: Canada’s resource reckoning is coming

Editor

Published

on

By

Good afternoon, and welcome to Globe Climate, a newsletter about climate change, environment and resources in Canada.

This afternoon, the Alberta government announced that it is restoring a coal mining policy it revoked last spring. At the time, the move provoked a widespread public backlash detailed by The Globe. The original decision, which opened up more than 1.4 million hectares to exploration, was made without public consultation. Premier Jason Kenney previously defended the changes.

Lots more on coal and Canada’s resources industry in this week’s newsletter edition.

Now, let’s catch you up on other news.

Continue Reading

Ecology

‘Incredibly destructive’: Canada’s Prairies to see devastating impact of climate change

Editor

Published

on

By

As the climate continues to warm at an alarming rate, experts warn if dramatic steps to mitigate global warming are not taken, the effects in Canada’s Prairie region will be devastating to the country’s agriculture sector.

According to Environment and Climate Change Canada, the country is warming, on average, about double the global rate.

Scientists with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the U.S. recently found 2020 was earth’s second-hottest year on record, with the average land and ocean surface temperature across the globe at 0.98 of a degree C above the 20th-century average.

However, the agency found the northern hemisphere saw its hottest year on record, at 1.28 degrees C above the average.

“(In Canada) we are looking at about 6.4C degrees of warming this century, which isn’t much less than one degree per decade, which is just a terrifying rate of warming,” Darrin Qualman, the director of climate crisis policy and action at the National Farmer’s Union said.

Qualman said there is “massive change coming” to Canada’s Prairies, which will be “incredibly destructive.”

“It’s not going too far to say that if we made that happen, parts of the Prairies wouldn’t be farmable anymore,” he said.

According to the federal government, in 2018 Canada’s agriculture and agri-food system generated $143 billion, accounting for 7.4 per cent of the country’s GDP.

The sector employed 2.3 million people in 2018. The majority of the 64.2 million hectares of farmland in Canada is concentrated in the Prairies and in southern Ontario.

The effects of climate change are already being felt on the ground in the Prairies, Qualman said, adding that the NFU has already heard from farmers complaining of “challenging weather.”

“People are sharing pictures of flattened crops and buildings, et cetera, that have been damaged,” he said. “And we’re still at the beginning of this.”

Continue Reading

Ecology

Insect-based dog food aims to cut your pet’s carbon pawprint

Editor

Published

on

By

Meat has an enormous carbon footprint, with livestock liable for about 15 per cent of worldwide emissions, as we have beforehand mentioned on this e-newsletter. That is prompted specialists to suggest consuming much less meat for sustainability (and well being) causes.

However what about your pet? One research discovered that the methane and nitrous oxide emissions generated by canine and cat meals within the U.S. alone had been equal to about 64 million tonnes of CO2, or roughly the quantity produced by 13.6 million automobiles. And it might be getting worse, with a development towards feeding pets “human-grade” meat.

That is prompted some pet meals makers to look to lower-carbon protein sources — together with bugs.

Research present that producing insect-based meals requires far much less feed, land and water and generates far fewer greenhouse fuel emissions per kilogram than meats comparable to beef, pork or rooster.

That is one of many causes increasingly more pet meals containing insect protein are hitting the market. Purina, a model owned by multinational Nestlé, launched a line of canine and cat meals containing black soldier fly larvae in Switzerland in November.

In Canada, Montreal-based Wilder Harrier began promoting canine treats made with cricket protein in 2015 and pet food made with black soldier fly larvae in 2019. It plans to broaden to launch a line of insect-based cat treats later this yr and cat meals in 2022 due to “a ton of demand,” mentioned firm co-founder Philippe Poirier.

Wilder Harrier initially labored with animal nutritionists on insect-based merchandise to unravel a unique downside — specifically, the founders’ canines had allergy symptoms to frequent meats utilized in canine meals. Poirier mentioned now about half its prospects hunt down the product due to their pets’ allergy symptoms and about half for environmental causes.

Dr. Cailin Heinze, a U.S.-based veterinary nutritionist licensed by the American School of Veterinary Vitamin, has written concerning the environmental influence of pet meals. She mentioned we’re typically “not as involved as we probably ought to [be]” concerning the environmental footprint of pets.

Alternatively, she famous that the longer-term influence of newer diets, comparable to vegan meals and people containing bugs, hasn’t been nicely examined in comparison with conventional pet meals.

Maria Cattai de Godoy, an assistant professor of animal sciences on the College of Illinois who research novel proteins for pet meals (together with bugs, yeast and plant-based substances), mentioned such substances are rigorously examined to find out their security and diet earlier than being added to pet meals. 

“This can be a very extremely regulated trade,” she mentioned, however admitted it is also evolving.

Relating to bugs, she mentioned constructive information “reveals promise in direction of utilizing them increasingly more in pet meals.” Insect-based proteins have additionally earned the endorsement of the British Veterinary Affiliation, which says some insect-based meals could also be higher for pets than prime steak.

However Godoy famous that there isn’t any one-size-fits-all resolution, and pet homeowners ought to take into consideration the wants of their very own particular person pet and analysis whether or not a specific weight loss plan can be appropriate.

She mentioned that other than the kind of protein, issues like packaging and manufacturing strategies may also make a distinction. For instance, utilizing meat byproducts that may in any other case turn into waste would not drive elevated meat manufacturing the identical approach as utilizing human-grade meat.

Continue Reading

Chat

Trending