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Donner son corps à la science

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Un texte d’André Bernard, de Découverte

La lumière des néons inonde l’endroit. Une série de tables métalliques s’alignent dans la pièce. On devine les corps posés dessus à la forme des enveloppes de plastique blanc qui les recouvrent.

On voit des tables sur lesquelles sont posés des corps gardés dans des housses de plastique blanches.Des corps destinés à l’enseignement sont protégés par des housses de plastique. Photo : Radio-Canada

On se croirait à la morgue, à la différence que l’endroit est grouillant de vie. Les techniciennes du laboratoire d’anatomie de l’Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR) s’affairent tout autour. Elles préparent les corps pour les prochains groupes d’étudiants.

Chaque année, ils défilent par centaines dans ce laboratoire d’anatomie. Ils sont étudiants au collège ou à l’université. Ils poursuivent des études techniques ou des formations en médecine.

Les corps deviennent des outils précieux d’apprentissage. Au-delà des illustrations détaillées ou des mannequins, les cadavres offrent le réalisme du corps humain. Rien ne les remplace, selon les étudiants, pour étudier les structures internes, apprécier les variations d’un corps à l’autre, se familiariser avec la texture des tissus et se faire une représentation mentale, en trois dimensions, de la disposition des organes, des os, des muscles et des nerfs qui parcourent le corps.

On voit en gros plan des mains qui manipules des os de la colonne vertébrale.Des étudiants examinent des os dans un cours d’anatomie. Photo : Radio-Canada

Je le dis parfois à certains étudiants, c’est comme une bibliothèque qu’on vous a offerte, une bibliothèque d’images. Profitez-en!

Gilles Bronchti, directeur du département d’anatomie de l’UQTR

Si l’enseignement de l’anatomie représente une bonne part de l’usage qu’on fait des corps, ce n’est pas la seule utilisation. En chirurgie, les cadavres s’avèrent aussi très utiles. Ils permettent entre autres de tester différentes approches ou encore, pour les médecins résidents, de s’entraîner à répéter les gestes chirurgicaux avant de procéder à de véritables opérations.

On voit des étudiants dans un laboratoire qui pratiquent leurs tâches médicales sur des corps disposés sur des tables.Les corps sont de précieux outils d’apprentissage en chirurgie. Photo : Radio-Canada

L’avantage, en se pratiquant sur les cadavres, c’est qu’ensuite, quand on arrive pour le faire sur les patients, on est plus à l’aise, on l’a déjà fait. Ça diminue le facteur stress.

Julien Bernatchez, médecin résident en chirurgie vasculaire à l’Université Laval

L’amélioration des méthodes d’embaumement a permis d’élargir l’usage des corps aussi bien pour l’enseignement en chirurgie qu’au niveau de la recherche. Traditionnellement, les corps sont embaumés à partir d’une solution à base de formol. Cette méthode a pour effet de rigidifier le corps, les organes et les tissus. La méthode est parfaite pour l’enseignement de l’anatomie, mais moins adaptée à la chirurgie puisque les tissus n’ont plus la consistance de ceux d’un être vivant.

C’est fantastique pour apprendre l’anatomie. Les pièces restent en place, les organes sont tous en place, mais la texture est très dure; la peau, ça n’a rien de normal.

Gilles Bronchti, directeur du département d’anatomie de l’UQTR
On voit des parties de cerveaux humains disposés sur des plateaux, dans un laboratoire.Des cerveaux destinés à la dissection. Photo : Radio-Canada

Deux autres méthodes d’embaumement, celle au sel saturé et la méthode Thiel, permettent de conserver certaines propriétés physiques des tissus tout en assurant la conservation des corps à long terme. La méthode au sel saturé permet, par exemple, de bien conserver le cerveau et de préserver sa texture; même chose pour la peau. La méthode Thiel, quant à elle, permet de maintenir une grande flexibilité des articulations et de maintenir la souplesse de certains tissus comme les poumons.

On voit trois solutions dans des contenants transparents.Différentes solutions utilisées pour embaumer les corps. Photo : Radio-Canada

La méthode Thiel, dès qu’elle est arrivée ici, c’était comme une révolution pour nous, parce qu’on avait des corps très souples.

Gilles Bronchti, directeur du département d’anatomie de l’UQTR

Ces méthodes se sont révélées particulièrement utiles pour les travaux du groupe de recherche CAVIAR, qui regroupe des chercheurs canadiens et français. Leur objectif est de mieux comprendre et d’améliorer la ventilation durant les massages cardiaques. L’utilisation du cadavre Thiel, dans leur cas, s’est révélée un bon modèle pour étudier la dispersion de l’air dans le système respiratoire durant les massages cardiaques. Alors que le cadavre est branché à un respirateur artificiel, les poumons se gonflent à nouveau, la cage thoracique se remet à s’ouvrir et à se fermer. Pendant ce temps, des capteurs mesurent les changements de pression.

On voit une équipe qui effectue un massage cardiaque sur un corps. Des tubes et des appareils servent à prendre des mesures.Les corps peuvent servir à mieux comprendre la ventilation durant les massages cardiaques. Photo : Radio-Canada

On a pu démontrer que pendant le massage cardiaque, en fait, on écrase le thorax et les poumons, et que ça induit une fermeture de petites voies aériennes qui sont à l’intérieur du thorax, ce qui va compromettre la qualité de la ventilation.

Dr Jean-Christophe Richard, pneumologue au Centre hospitalier Annecy Genevois, en France

En plus des projets de recherche actuels à l’UQTR, d’autres vont bientôt s’amorcer, dont un projet en thanatologie criminalistique. Le projet consiste à évaluer la décomposition des corps en milieu naturel en vue d’améliorer les méthodes de recherche et d’identification des restes d’une victime.

Comment faire don de son corps?

La majorité des départements d’anatomie des universités québécoises peuvent recevoir des corps destinés à la science. Certains critères s’imposent (Nouvelle fenêtre) au moment de faire don de son corps, dont le poids du corps qui ne doit pas dépasser 90,7 kilos (200 lbs); il ne doit pas être embaumé ni avoir subi une autopsie; il doit contenir tous ses organes vitaux (le don d’organes n’est pas compatible avec le don de corps); le corps ne doit pas avoir été endommagé par un accident majeur ni avoir été porteur d’une maladie contagieuse.

Le reportage d’André Bernard et Hélène Morin est diffusé à l’émission Découverte, dimanche, à 18 h 30, à ICI Radio-Canada Télé.

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John Summers: How Ottawa lawyer mocked motherhood and society, reveals new book

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An Ottawa based lawyer from a leading law firm has been entangled in a web of controversy due to his action, which many have described has shocking and inhumane.

Despite claiming to uphold justice, human rights and societal values, John Summers, a lawyer at Bell Baker LLP, is a clear-cut example of just how broken the legal system in Canada is. It appears that Summers and his firm for years now have been exploiting a disturbed senior citizens  with chronic health conditions in his continuous abuse of his wife, for financial gains.

Summers has consistently stood in the way of justice by fabricating numerous lies. Resorting to lies in an attempt to hinder justice is an action that is heavily frowned upon by ethical legal practitioners. But Dezrin continued to suffer domestic abuse due to Summers’ action which had preventing her son, Raymond from seeing his own mother.

Summers’ actions since February 2016 has now resulted in the reported premature death of Dezrin Carby-Samuels who had been an RN who was selflessly dedicated to serving both her family and every community that she had lived.

Raymond and his mother, Dezrin, had sought the intervention of the law courts as a last resort in their quest for justice after Dezrin has been consistently abused by her husband, Horace and her daughter, Marcella. Rather than getting the fair hearing and justice that they expected, they received the direct opposite due to Summers apparently employing every dirty trick in the book. He has resorted to lies and illicit collaboration with judges of him alma mata just to inhibit every effort being made by Dezrin and her son.

In a book titled John Summers: The Untold Story of Corruption, Systemic Racism and Evil at Bell Baker LLP, author Peter Tremblay takes readers on a shocking journey into John Summers’ tactics which lacked ethical properiety and human decency.

Summers is proof that the ethical practices associated with the legal profession is quickly fading and it is a course for concern. In the case against Horace, Summers produced an apparent fraudulent affidavit which claimed that Raymond suffers from a mental condition—an entirely false claim. Lawyers like Summers are willing to go any length in an attempt to hinder justice, even if it leads to the destruction of lives and properties.

Summers falsely claimed that his client, Horace couldn’t file a defence for himself because he was unaware of the adopted court proceedings. However, in the early 1900s, Horace was the same one who showed so much confidence in his legal capabilities that he decided not to hire a legal counsel but represent himself during a lawsuit between his union and the Canadian Government. This act is contradictory to Summers’ claim of his poor legal understanding.

As humans, some certain moral ethics and values set us apart from other living things and one of them is showing respect for elders. Lawyers are respected in the society due to their pledge to always ensure justice prevails but Summers’ apparent greed and love for money have made him violate the human rights of an ailing mother and her son.

Peter Tremblay’s book uncovers untold stories of a corrupt system that accommodates abuse in the most inhumane form.  In Canada’s legal system, empathy and compassion were thrown out the door in exchange for money and an unknown demomic agenda. It begs the question: How then are aggrieved citizens supposed to trust a legal system for justice when a lawyer can tell unending lies against a senior citizen without any consequences or accountability?

The Law Society of Upper Canada which is supposed to regulate the legal profession in Ontario is a complete joke run by similarly corrupt lawyers who ignore the misdeeds of their colleagues.

Summers’ actions have led to Dezrin being unable to do anything since she lost her ability to walk, talk or even write due to abuse and ultimately her premature death.

Her inability to receive help from even her own son due to Summers’ fraudulent activities resulted in the destruction of Dezrin Carby-Samuels and for that reason Summers should be barred from the further practice of law anywhere in Canada.

In my view, Summers is an abomination to the legal profession and Peter Tremblay’s book documents the activities of John Summers since 2016 against three judges who where not from Summers’ alma mata and who sought justice for Dezrin and her son.

Since 2016, Dezrin had sought obtain freedom from forcible confinement imposed by her abusive husband but was unsuccessful, due to the interference Summers who refused to divulge who was in fact paying him reportedly $300/hr to frustrate justice.

Reports from credible sources allege that Dezrin passed away sometime last year due to Summers’ evil practices and this report has cast a dark cloud over the future of the legal system in Canada which had been ignoring the plight of other black Canadians.

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City staff propose ‘gold belt’ to hem in future Ottawa development

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The City of Ottawa is about to have a second marathon debate about where to allow future suburbs to be built, and this time staff propose hemming in development by creating what’s being dubbed the “gold belt.”

Eight months after city council decided to expand the urban boundary by 1,281 hectares to help house a growing population, senior city planners have released the map of which properties should be developed — and which property owners stand to see values soar if their lands are rezoned. 

They include areas north of Kanata on March Road, near the future Bowesville O-Train station in the south end, and at the southern edge of Orléans.

Scoring rural properties on such things as how close they are to transit and how costly it would be to build pipes and roads proved a challenge over the past several months, however.

“The easy land has been gobbled up in years past, in previous boundary expansions,” said Coun. Scott Moffatt, who belongs to a group of councillors that meets about the new official plan. “So now we’re looking at those leftover pieces and where we can [grow], knowing council was clear we would not be touching agricultural lands.”

270 hectares short of goal

Staff struggled to come up with all 1,281 hectares council approved adding in May 2020 because they had too many issues with “sub-optimal” lands.

Instead, they recommended converting 1,011 hectares of rural land to urban for now to meet provincial requirements, and then spending the next five years studying three options for making up the 270-hectare shortfall.

That opens the door to creating an entirely new suburb. 

For instance, one option involves a huge parcel near the Amazon warehouse southeast of the city where the Algonquins of Ontario envision a community of 35,000 to 45,000 people called Tewin, which they would build with developers Taggart.

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How an Ottawa woman built a majestic snow dragon in her front yard

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OTTAWA — You may sometimes feel winter drag on, but one Ottawa woman is not letting that dim her creativity.

Dr. Mary Naciuk is family doctor and rural emergency room physician. She spent some of her free time this weekend building a majestic snow dragon in front of her south Ottawa home.

“It’s just fun to get outside and do something creative,” she told CTV News on Sunday.

There was plenty of snow to use, after Ottawa saw a record 21 cm of snow on Saturday.

She said that after her husband cleared the driveway, the pile of snow left behind lent itself to being turned into a magnificent dragon, but it takes more than just the right kind of snow to make a sculpture like this.

Naciuk tells CTV News a shovel, a butter knife, a spoon and even a blowtorch were used to give the dragon its sharp edges and defined scales.

“Anything pointy with a small detail is really hard to do with just your fingers or the butter knife and spoon I was using, so (the blowtorch) just makes a fine point,” she said.

Her son tweeted about it on Saturday and Naciuk says many people have stopped to take a look.

My mom has reached the pass me a blowtorch and shovel and watch me make a snow dragon stage of the pandemic

(I was only allowed to shovel piles of snow) pic.twitter.com/aphZotpHiC — Tom Naciuk (@NaciukThomas) January 16, 2021

“A lot of people stop on their way to the ice rink and have a look and take pictures. It’s kind of fun,” she said.

It was a welcome relief to spend some time working on something creative outdoors, Naciuk said.

“Get outside, get some exercise, clear your mind, do something that is not COVID for a few hours. It obeys all the rules. It was great,” she said, adding that the dragon took her about five hours to build.

She’s been on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic for months. 

“It’s been a steep learning curve. It’s been exhausting,” she said. “A lot of the time is learning how to deliver care to people and maintain all the precautions that we need to. That’s been hard. A lot of people are not able to work from time to time, so we fill a lot of extra shifts. It’s been a lot more hours of work than it used to be, that’s for sure.”

Naciuk returns to work on Monday after a weekend of respite but says if the conditions are right—a nice mild day, a good snowfall, and some free time—another sculpture may well appear.

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