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NASA Once Made an Official Ruling on Women and Pantsuits

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Student Kathy L. Jackson wearing pants as she greets Astronauts and MSFC Personnel(L-R); ASTRONAUTS Rusty Schweickart, Owen Garriott, and MSFC Skylab Program Manager Leland Belew. NASA/MSFC

Student Kathy L. Jackson wearing pants as she greets Astronauts and MSFC Personnel(L-R); ASTRONAUTS Rusty Schweickart, Owen Garriott, and MSFC Skylab Program Manager Leland Belew. NASA/MSFC

In 1970, NASA’s Goddard Spaceflight Centre was forced to address a tricky new issue in the realm of women in space: the validity of pants in the workplace. 

Women and pants have a strange relationship throughout the 20th century, and further back, too, though for the moment we aren’t going to get into Joan of Arc wearing men’s armour. Pants — or trousers or slacks — began the last century as men’s clothing, but it wasn’t long before exceptions started to appear in the form of athletic wear.  In the 1920s, women could wear knee-length bloomers or knickers while playing sports, though even this purposely use of traditionally men’s clothing didn’t protect women from drawing negative attention.

Nevertheless, women began favouring slacks in the 1920s and 1930s for comfort (and also pockets) often with disastrous results. In 1938, kindergarten teacher Helen Hulick was held in contempt and given a five-day jail sentence for appearing in court in slacks. And she wasn’t on trial — she was testifying against a burglar! She ultimately testified… in a jail-issued dress. In the years that followed, women working in factories or serving as aviators were able to wear pants or coveralls because it was far more convenient and safe than wearing a dress around machinery. 

But a handful of actresses began to shift the perception of women in pants around the same time. Kate Hepburn, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Mozelle Britton, and Fay Wray were all stars who opted for slacks over the traditional dresses; Hepburn’s propensity for pants ultimately became one of her most distinctive characteristics. But while celebrities were able to continue dressing in slacks, it didn’t change the reality that ordinary women risked imprisonment for wearing pants as late as the 1960s. It was deemed indecent, the formal charge often being “masquerading as men.”

By 1970, however, the second wave of feminism had begun to shift the perception of women in pants in earnest. Not only could women wear slacks, but jeans were also acceptable, and the pantsuit was becoming a symbol of power. The suit, the incredibly masculine symbol of power, not had a feminine counterpart. 1970 was also the year the pantsuit revolution hit NASA. 

Last year, I spent a solid four days in the NASA archives researching for my new book (more on that later) and among the unrelated but fascinating things I found was this memo to “All Goddard Girls” with the subject line “Pant Suits.”

In short, the memo asked all women at Goddard to consider whether they thought pant suits were really appropriate, not only as women in science but as women working for the US Government. The memo ends allowing for  “If you feel that pantsuits will not be offensive to your boss and would not embarrass him when he has outside visitors, I see no objection to your wearing such outfits.” 

The whole of it is here:

The Pantsuit Memo. NASA Archives.

The Pantsuit Memo. NASA Archives.

Sources: Some links are in the body of the post; Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America By Lillian Faderman; NASA Archives.



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Ecology

Japan’s Hayabusa2 Is Going to Shoot an Asteroid Tonight

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Did Huge Volcanic Eruptions Help Kill Off The Dinosaurs?

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deccan traps volcanic eruptions

A large series of volcanic eruptions created India’s Deccan Plateau right around the same time dinosaurs were going extinct. (Planet Labs, Inc/Wikimedia Commons)

Nearly 66 million years ago, most living things on Earth died. Most researchers agree that the prime culprit was an asteroid that struck Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, leading to the mass extinction that took out most of the dinosaurs. But in a new research published Thursday, two independent research groups are making the case that enormous volcanic eruptions in India likely contributed to the demise of life, too.

The findings shed light on not only one of the most famous events in Earth’s history, but also the potential consequences of current environmental change, the researchers say.

“Understanding past extinction events — their causes, and eventual climatic and biotic recoveries — is crucial … when trying to wrap our heads around the many possible outcomes of our current trajectory towards disastrous climate change, ecosystem destruction and potential mass extinction,” Blair Schoene, a geologist at Princeton University in New Jersey, who led one of two new studies, said in a statement.

Death Debate

Geologic evidence uncovered in the ’80s and ’90s led researchers to conclude that a giant asteroid’s collision with Earth caused the extinction event. That setoff a worldwide hunt for the impact site. Amd geologists announced they’d finally discovered the Chicxulub crater in 1991.

“Despite this evidence, the impactor hypothesis has met with some skepticism because many extinction events roughly coincide with the [explosion] of enormous volumes of volcanic rock onto and into Earth’s crust,” explains Seth Burgess, a volcanologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California, who was not involved in the research, in a related perspective piece.

That lingering debate has led other scientists to study India’s Deccan plateau, an enormous landmass extending east and south of Mumbai, to create a precise timeline of the volcanic eruptions. For the latest analysis, Schoene and a research team studied uranium and lead isotopes — commonly used to date rocks — that they found in zircon mineral crystals buried beneath the lava flows. It revealed four high-volume eruptions that happened between 66.4 and 65.6 million years ago. The data show that the second of these eruptions likely began tens of thousands of years before the mass extinction event, the researchers report in the journal Science.

Unending Eruption

In a second study also out Thursday in Science, another team used a different technique to corroborate the finding. Here, the researchers assessed argon isotopes to date the eruption of lavas in the area. Their analysis also showed the eruptions began thousands of years before the mass extinction. However, the investigation revealed a more or less continuous eruption that lasted for about a million years. Although the finding contrasts with the punctuated eruptions Schoene and team discovered, both studies agree the Deccan eruptions likely played a role in the mass extinction event.

Given the timing of the eruption events and the meteor impact, it’s possible the two triggers delivered a double-whammy deathblow.

“Both of our datasets suggest a coincidence between the onset of Deccan eruptions and Late Cretaceous climate change, which has been attributed to the weakening of Late Cretaceous ecosystems, possibly making them more susceptible to the effects from the meteor impact,” Courtney Sprain, a geoscientist who led the second study while at the University of California Berkeley, said in a statement.



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A New Species of Tiny Tyrannosaur Helps Explain the Rise of T. rex

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moros intrepidus the tyrannosaur

Moros intrepidus, a new species of tyrannosaur whose name means “harbinger of doom,” weighed just 200 pounds as a fully grown adult. (Credit: Jorge Gonzalez, Copyright: Lindsay Zanno)

Scientists have discovered a new species of tiny tyrannosaur that lived some 95 million years ago in what’s now Utah. The find helps fill a frustrating gap in the fossil record at a critical time when tyrannosaurs were evolving from small, speedy hunters, into the bone-crushing apex predators we know so well.

The new dinosaur has been dubbed Moros intrepidus, and its name means “harbinger of doom.” The creature, known only from a leg bone and some various teeth, weighed under 200 pounds as a fully-grown adult. It was a specialist predator and scientists say it was fast enough to easily run down prey while avoiding other meat-eaters.

Their discovery was published Thursday in the journal Nature Communications Biology.

The Tiniest Tyrant

Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the most terrifying creatures to ever live. Few larger predators have walked the Earth. But tyrannosaurs – a group including T. rex and dozens of relatives and ancestors – weren’t always so awe-inspiring.

Tyrannosaurs roamed the planet for more than 100 million years. And for much of that time, the two-legged predators were bit players in Earth’s ecosystems. The earliest of their kind stood shorter than a human. They were fleet-footed and relied on their brains and strong senses to hunt down prey.

Meanwhile, during that same time in the Jurassic period, another kind of dinosaur, the allosaurs, which look like T. rex to the untrained eye, grew as big as a school bus and hunted giant, long-necked sauropods. But a big change was coming. A period of intense volcanic eruptions rocked the end of the Jurassic 145 million years ago. The allosaurs and other large dinosaurs started dying out.

Then, over a relatively short period, tyrannosaurs in North America evolved into the beasts we now imagine. And by the time an asteroid killed off the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago, a full-grown T. rex weighed in at some nine tons and spanned a whopping 40 feet from snout to tail. How that happened is one of the biggest unanswered questions for dinosaur experts like Lindsay Zanno, a paleontologist at North Carolina State University.

That’s why Zanno and her team have spent more than a decade systematically searching North America’s rocks for fossils from this era. As she puts it, she wants to know how tyrannosaurs went from “wall flowers to prom kings.”

In particular, they’ve been combing the deserts of Utah near a giant 1,000-foot-tall rock formation the team calls the Cliffs of Insanity. The name sprung from the realization that one day they’d have to climb them looking for fossils.

“We have this data desert in between these small-bodied tyrannosaurs that lived in North American during the Jurassic and the sudden appearance of these large bodied, bone crushing tyrannosaurs that lived here in the Late Cretaceous,” she says. “And there’s no record of how we made this transition.”

Scientists already have some ideas about what may have happened. But there’s scant fossil evidence to confirm or refute their theories. It may be that amid the mini-mass extinction, dinosaurs and other animals migrated across a land bridge from Asia into North America, like our own ancestors eventually would. The small, ancient tyrannosaurs might have simply been following their prey: relatives of triceratops, which were also much smaller at the time.

“We know that there’s this ecological transition happening in this time when a lot of dinosaurs living in North America disappear and go extinct, and a lot of other animals suddenly appear that have their closest relatives in Asia,” says Zanno. “They become established here in North America and then they go on to evolve into these iconic species that we know and love like Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops.”

Mind the Gap

One of the major hang-ups in deciphering what happened has been a 70-million-year gap in North American tyrannosaur fossils during the time when this evolution was taking place. The new tiny tyrannosaur, Moros, narrows that gap by 15 million years.

And the team’s analysis of the new animal and its relatives hints that tyrannosaurs evolved into giants in no more than 16 million years. Though it could have happened much faster.

Tyrannosaurs were opportunistic in their rise to power,” Zanno says. “Moros tells us that the T . rex lineage moved here from Asia and remained small until they were able to take over ecosystems.”

Still, this doesn’t answer the question of why exactly all this change took place. Zanno says finding that answer is part of a decade-long project still in the works.



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